The Redding Boys
by David Johnson

     All feuds present numerous problems to both researchers and historians. Often our original judgment is clouded by the feud pioneers, the ground breakers that preceded us. In the author's case I first became aware of John Ringo and the Hoo Doo War through the work of Dr. C. L. Sonnichsen, a historian worthy of every praise one can give him. In his classic work Ten Texas Feuds Sonnichsen was the first writer to seriously deal with the feud in a historic sense, providing footnotes, sources and so forth. (1) It is from Dr. Sonnichsen's excellent book that the author formed his first impressions of this brutal war. In reflecting on the thoughts of thirty plus years ago, I can recall that the mob would be impossible to identify and that the so called Americans were limited to half a dozen big names: the Bairds, Cooley, Gladden and Ringo. Note to the younger researchers: Each and every one of my original perceptions was incorrect. The mob is not impossible to identify, and the feudists themselves could well have paraphrased Luke by using the name "Legion." (2)

     Which brings us to the Redding boys. Bill and Tom Redding are not household words, and while I have known of the brothers for twenty or more years, their origins and fate were shrouded in mystery. To further complicate the situation, the Redding brothers have been confused, both then and now, with another set of Reddings that were also in trouble at the same time in the same area of Texas. (3)

     The Reddings were from old Virginia stock. Thomas Redding was born in 1794 to Anderson and Delilah Parham Redding of Sussex, Virginia . When he settled in Georgia has not been determined, but family records indicate that he married Mariah (Mina) Searcy around 1810. Their fourth child was James M. Redding born around 1825. James married Elizabeth Francis Chambliss around 1848 or 1849. Their oldest son William Zachariah Redding was born near Forsyth, Georgia, on February 3, 1850. The census, enumerated on October 31, listed James M. Redding, age 26, as a farmer. His wife Francis C. gave her age as 19. Both were born in Georgia. Living with them were William Z., nine months old, and two other Reddings, William A., age 28, and Daniel S., 18, both of whom were listed as farmers born in Georgia. (4)

     James and Elizabeth had two more children. Around 1852 a daughter, Elizabeth Wynona was born to the couple. She was followed by a son, Thomas Searcy, born in 1854. (5) It is here that the Redding controversy first begins. Elizabeth Redding died sometime around 1855 and James later married Sarah Jones. The 1860 census reflects the changes within the family. James M. Redding is listed as 35, a farmer with real estate valued at $2000 and personal property valued at $9800, a fortune for the times. Sarah is listed as age 26. There were five children in the household. Zach is listed as 10 followed by Elizabeth, 8, Charles, 6, Thomas, 3 and James Z. age 1. (6) From this it appears that Thomas was born around 1857 and was actually the son of Sarah Jones. However, following Elizabeth's death James M. Redding as principal, Thomas Redding, his father, and Edward Chambliss filed a guardian's bond for William, Elizabeth and Thomas. (7) From this it appears obvious that the census taker erred while making his entry.

     The Civil War was not kind to the Redding family. During the war Bill and Tom Redding were sent with the family's livestock down to Florida to keep them from being confiscated. One descendant wrote:

          "When he was 14 years old, the Union Army under General Sherman
          was invading the area. William Zacharaih (sic) and his younger brother
          Tom were given the job of hiding the livestock. I am not sure how big the
          herd was, but they took the animals down into Florida to keep them from
          being confiscated. When the fighting was over, they returned home and
          found that the entire family had been killed. James M. had been killed on
          the battlefield at Griswoldsville, Ga." (8)

     With both of their parents dead, the Reddings were sent west. "He, his brother, Thomas Searcy Redding, and sister, Elizabeth Winona, or Wynona Redding, left Georgia in 1870 via Alabama. Elizabeth Winona styed (sic) in Alabama, and the two brothers headed for Texas . . ." (9)

     No record of the Reddings can be found on the 1870 census for Macon County, Alabama, nor for Benjamin Chambliss. (10) By the early 1870's the brothers had headed west for Texas. There are indications that they may have aimed for Burnet County because of friends or kinsmen living in the area. Texas was then a land of opportunity, and the cattle trade had brought wealth to more than one family. Whatever the case, the decision to settle in Burnet County proved fateful. Texas would bring the brothers serious trouble. (11)

     Seeking employment in the cattle trade it was natural that the brothers would begin as drovers. The brothers settled in the Marble Falls area south of Burnet. It was here that Bill Redding married Loveda Ann Lacy, a daughter of Jacob Melbourne Lacy and Elizabeth Ann Armstrong. (12) It was in Burnet County that the brothers also appear to have entered into some sort of partnership with A. G. Roberts, a Burnet cattleman. (13) It was an alliance that would bring the Reddings trouble. Roberts insisted on claiming the cattle in counties where he had a legitimate claim. Others, intent on controlling the mavericks that these cattle would produce and the money to be had from them opposed them. One of these men was Miles Barler. (14) Barler, an member of the mob that operated in Llano County, later reported:

          "There was a man by the name of ROBERTS, who came in here
          and bought up a few little stocks of cattle just to get a claim on the range.
          He then hired about fifty outlaws and regular desperadoes, and they
          gathered nearly everything on the range and drove them off to Austin and
          San Antonio and sold them for what they could get and would divide up
          the proceeds among themselves and then come right back and get another
          herd. The people would indict them but they would swear for each other
          and get out of it every time." (15)

     At the time Barler wrote his book, he was under the belief that the Llano County District Court Records for this time had been destroyed by fire. They had not, and a review of the docket indicates that until the summer of 1874 the men Barler charged were cattle thieves had made few, if any, appearances in court. One of them was Bill Redding.

     Redding was indicted in Llano County on April 25, 1874 for "Theft of three head of cattle." A. G. Roberts and J. C. Oatman (16) posted bond for him in the amount of $500. (17)

     This arrest, like so many of the time, may have been due to the passage of a new stock law in the spring of 1874 and the subsequent confusion that arose from it. By June 1874 it was readily apparent that the stock law was generating trouble, and Bill Redding's name first surfaces in the early stages of the Hoo-Doo War in neighboring Mason County. In a letter to Governor Richard Coke dated June 24, 1874, Wilson Hey, presiding justice of Mason County, reported:

          "At the request of the Citizens of this County, I would respectfully
          represent to you that parties from Llano & other Counties are continualy
          [sic] depredating upon the cattle of said Citizens; that during the last
          month parties from Llano Co. (in the Employ of one Roberts) in open
          violation of law have been gathering and driving Cattle from Mason Co.
          without having them inspected as the laws direct, and it is a positive fact
          that some of our citizens have had to go to Llano a distance of 25 miles &
          take from herds the very same milk cows . . . ."

     Hey continued that Roberts and his men "made open threats that if they came after them with the Sheriff that they would mix it with them or in other words fight." According to Hey, Roberts had hired Bill Redding as either a " Deputy-Inspector or Deputy Sheriff" in Llano County. "This Agent (W. Z. Redding) inspects the cattle, signs Roberts name to the bill of sale then certifies that Roberts is the owner or has authority to use such cattle and then certifies that he had inspected them ." (18) Hey denied that Redding was an officer and requested that a company of Rangers to be stationed in Mason County to deal with the situation. Within a year he would retract his statement. (19)

     On August 9, 1874, M. B. Thomas led a party of eleven herders into Mason County and began gathering cattle belonging to Roberts and other Burnet and Llano County ranchers. Accompanying them were two Mason County residents who were employed to cut the herd and insure that no cattle except those for whom they held power of attorney were gathered. Mason sheriff John Clark (20) and a posse of eighteen men pursued the drovers into Llano County and arrested them. The cattle were returned to Mason and scattered. (21) The men arrested, in addition to Roberts and Thomas, were V. P. Hamilton, G. L. Gardner, Newberry H. Holton, A. F. Hanson, G[eorge] C. Arnett, B. K. Hamilton, S. M. Sharer, Joe Gardner and F. J. West. None of them had any record of arrest in Llano County although Thomas had run afoul of the law during Reconstruction when he killed a dog in Burnet County. The other two men with Roberts appear to have been George W. Gladden and Timothy P. Williamson. (22)

     Roberts and his men were released on bond and returned to Llano County where they immediately had "true the sheriff and his whole posse . . . indicted by the grand jury of Llano county, for robbing us of our cattle in this manner . . ." Contemporary records for the time indicate that the men indicted included Clark, Deputy Sheriff James A. Baird, Jacob Durst, Barnard Durst, Peter Jordan, Henry Doell, Leo Zesch, F. (Fritz) Kothmann, F. (Frederick) Schmidt, J. G. Durst, August Leifeste, Daniel Hoerster, August Leifeste Sr., August Leifeste Jr., and Christian Oestreich. Based on these fifteen names, the locale where they lived and subsequent events, it appears likely that the posse also included the Bader brothers, Pete and Carl, and at least one of the Kothmann brothers, either Dietrich or Wilhelm. (23)

     The charges against Clark and his posse ignited an already explosive situation. In Llano County Bill Redding was charged with four misdemeanors on August 24. (24) At the same time his brother Tom was charged with theft. (25) The fact that it was the same day that Clark and his posse were indicted may indicate retribution through the court system by enemies of the Reddings. At the same Sheriff W. W. Saxon, apparently having incurred the mob's wrath by arresting some of the German possemen, was charged with willful neglect of duty. (26)

     Loveda Redding gave birth to the couple's first child, Beulah, in January 1875. It may have been the high point for the Reddings for the year. In the months that followed the Hoo-Doo War began in earnest. By September a number of men had been killed, but it remained for Moses Baird's death at the hands of Clark and a German posse in September 1875 for the full fury of the feud to be unleashed. In less than a month the Mason contingent of the Hoo-Doos had been shattered. John Clark fled Texas, and with the dawn of 1876 John Baird had exacted vengeance for his brother's death. During this time no record has been found linking the Redding brothers to the fighting, but following the arrests of Scott Cooley and John Ringo, Baird partisans, in Burnet County during December 1875 on charges unrelated to the feud.

     Following the killing of Peter Bader in January 1876, John Baird withdrew from the fighting. No longer concerned with revenge for his brother, he did feel an obligation to those who had supported him. On April 30 his allies made an attempt to liberate Cooley and Ringo from the Lampasas jail. In the small hours past midnight four men seized the jail guard and tied him to a fence. Two of the men remained with the guard while the others went to the jail and attempted to cut a hole through the wall. The men were forced to abandon the attempt when daylight approached. The guard was taken two miles out of town and left unharmed. (27)

     The aborted attempt to release the prisoners alerted Sheriff Albertus Sweet who prudently added additional guards and had the men hobbled. The measures were prudent ones, and it must have been unthinkable that a second attempt to free the prisoners would be made hard on the heels of the first given the heightened security at the jail. Four days later the unthinkable began when John Baird returned in force with a different plan. The men arrived at Sweet's home first and demanded the jail keys, threatening to kill him and his family if he did not cooperate. (28) After securing the Sweets they moved on toward the jail. Here they encountered two guards, Deputy Sheriff J. T. Walker and a second man, possibly William Gilliam, near the jail. Walker testified later that there were thirteen or fifteen men. The party told the guards "not to shoot that they had the keys & that if we hurt any of them that they would burn up the town." Walker realized that fight was futile. (29) The prisoners were removed and their hobbles cut with an ax. Walker further stated that some of the men had their faces blackened and others were masked.

     With Ringo and Cooley free, John Baird went into hiding, eventually heading west to the safety of New Mexico. Cooley died, or was murdered, during the summer of 1876, and to all intents the feud appeared to have come to an end. It had not. Overlooked by many historians, the Mason Hoo-Doos had operated in conjunction with another mob in neighboring Llano County. In his memoirs, Barler intimates that he was one of the organizers of the Llano mob, naming the leaders as himself, William Clark, William Jones, Joe Leverett and Bob Rountree. The Llano mob "didn't have many men when we commenced" Barler recalled. (30) Some of those they did have they could have done without.

     Unlike their German counterparts in Mason County, the Llano mob had kept a low profile while Baird's army of vengeance had swept the area hunting for the men he held responsible for his brother's death. Now, with both Cooley and Baird gone from the area, the mob felt free to flex its muscle. Their initial target appears to have been Ed Cavin. They killed James Williams, a brother-in-law of Bill Redding, by mistake. (31)

     On September 10 Williams was in Llano where he stopped briefly before moving on toward Cat Mountain. At daybreak the next morning a band of men approached the camp and shot him as he fled for his life. The Burnet Bulletin, reporting the facts from the jury's inquest, stated that early on the morning of September 11 a citizen heard firing near Cat Mountain. When daylight arrived he went to the spot and found Williams dead. His horse was staked a short distance away.

               "It appeared that Stewart had discovered the approach of the party in
          time to saddle his horse and escape. Apparently Williams had attempted
          to unfasten his horse, but failing, had run to a thicket which he passed
          through, and ran through a glade and got to another thicket, on the far side
          of which he was found lying on his face, seven bullets having entered his
          body. The trail of Stewart was followed some distance, and a saddle and a
          pair of gloves was found, both girths of the saddle being broken. As yet
          no one knows who are the murderers of Williams. (32)

     Although initially identified as a man named Stewart, Williams' companion was actually feudist Ed Cavin, a John Baird partisan. In the same issue the paper reported:

               "Mr. John Haynes, a merchant of Backbone Valley, tells us that he
          learned that news had reached the Lacy's that Jim Williams, a son-in-law
          of Mr. Jake Lacy, was killed by a party of men who rode up to his camp
          about daylight and shot him several times, killing him.
               Ed. Cavin who was with Williams, ran as soon as he saw the men
          approaching. He says, shortly after leaving the camp he heard several
          shots and heard Williams hollow. It is not known who did the killing, but
          supposed to be some of the Mason county men who were probably trying
          to catch Cavin. This occurred Monday morning the 11th, six miles this
          side of Llano town. (33)

     Williams' killing by the mob created a furor within the county. Llano officials were determined to get the killers, and correspondent J. W. Davis wrote on September 11, 1876, that:

               "Another man was killed last night in this county, about nine miles
          below town. He is supposed to be a man by the name of Williams. It is
          not known who did the deed. A jury of inquest is just starting out to the
          place, and the particulars will not be known until their return. I am fully
          convinced this thing will not be stopped until some means are adopted for
          the protection of the people in their rights." (34)

     Aware of the furor, Barler reported of the incident simply that , aware of the fact that Roberts' men "found one of their party dead one day, and they picked out five of our leaders and made comp[l]aint against them for murder." (35) According to Barler, those charged were himself, Bill Jones, Bob Rountree, Joe Leverett and William Clark. Sheriff William Hoskins did indeed make the arrests, and West Texas Free Press in San Marcos reported.

               "I have nothing new to report from the mines except that they are all
          that the most sanguine could wish. I should look forward to an early day
          when this county will begin to develop were it not from the fact that there
          is almost war going on between two different parties. Four of our best
          citizens were charged with the murder of a man by the name of Williams" (36)

     The discrepancy in the number of arrests made is one of many in Barler's recollection of events. Intriguingly Barler identifies neither the victim nor the killers although at the time he wrote both were well known. It remained for Texas Ranger James B. Gillett to identify the killer, naming the trigger man as Dell Dublin. (37) The reasons are obvious. Linking Dell Dublin and his brothers to the Llano mob was embarrassing to Barler and mob alike. During the mid-1870's the Dublin brothers were known outlaws, and their presence in the mob's ranks casts doubts on both the objectiveness and integrity of the mob. While Barler denied his involvement in the killing, he did not deny that Williams was killed by the mob.

     Having been given warrants Sheriff Hoskins had no choice but to serve them. According to Barler he received word from a friend that Hoskins was

               "summoning about two hundred men. I didn't know what it meant at
          first. He gave me a little hint what it was for. He knew all about it. I
          laughed and said that I had heard those thieves were going to lay that on
          some of our party. I told Wilkes that was all foolishness, if he would
          come with the papers himself not a man would resist arrest. If we were
          guilty that would be another thing, and I suppose he thought we were." (38)

     Barler claimed that he notified the others that were wanted, then fortified himself in his home and waited for the gigantic posse's arrival. Much to his chagrin the posse passed his home without stopping although two men did drop out and hide near the house.

               "They dropped out when they passed by and the sheriff didn't know
          it. They came up to the haystack where my horse was tied close by, and
          untied him and led him behind the stack, so when I came out to get him
          they could kill me right there -- there would be no witnesses but
          themselves. They would claim that they tried to arrest me and I resisted
          and they were justified in killing me. But didn't I wish I had known they
          were there. I have been told the two men were Bill Reden [sic: Redding]
           and Joe Ollany [sic: Olney]." (39)

     Redding and Olney tired of waiting for their prey and departed. Barler then went into town where he ran into Bob Rountree. According to the thrilling account, he and Rountree went to a store when "Bill Reden [sic: Redding] came over on our side and took his position on our right; standing there chewing his tobacco, he looked as innocent as a lamb." (40) Naturally, by Barler's astute observation, the ambush was averted.

     The account given by Barler is seriously flawed. One obvious problem is his claim that Hoskins' posse had ridden past his home without stopping. Hoskins would hardly have ridden past with a force of two hundred men at his disposal as Barler claims. No contemporary evidence indicates that such a posse ever existed beyond Barler's imagination. Moreover, Joe Olney was not riding with any posse at that time, having just shot two deputy sheriffs, one of them a brother of Bob Rountree, on September 7. (41)

     In 1877 Jacob Lacy determined to move his family out of Texas. According to John Hancock Lacy, "In the Spring of 1877, we heard of the great silver strike at the 76 Mine at Silver City, New Mexico." (42) Bill Redding and his wife had a new mouth to consider following the birth of son Thomas, and the move seemed fortuitous. Accompanying them on the journey were a number of other families. Also leaving the feud torn region were a number of Baird allies including Joe Olney. The caravan ran into trouble in Coleman County. Lacy recalled:

               "While we were fishing and talking, he told me of the law arresting
          three men and putting them in the Brownwood jail. They were Mike
          Blakely, John Robson and Tom Redding, men I knew to be our friends. . . .
           I made some excuse to get away and went and told father. He began to
          make plans to try to get the boys out of jail." (43)

     John Lacy scouted out the situation in Brownwood where the men had been jailed for added security. It proved a futile effort.      On May 11, 1877, a number of men rode into Brownwood and calmly ate lunch. One paper reported "immediately after dinner" a number of horses were hitched outside the front of the jail and others on the west side. Around three thirty in the afternoon four men entered the sheriff's office and asked if the County Clerk was present. "They then asked to see the "record of Marks and Brands," which Mr. Ford very politely placed before them for their inspection." (44) Hancock confirmed this, stating that his brother Mart and three others went into Brownwood and told the jailer that they wanted to look at the brand records.

               "About the time the jailer got the brands out and got real interested in
          looking at them, the boys pulled out their guns and said, "To hell with the
          brands; we want the keys to the jail." He gave them up without a word." (45)

     This is confirmed by contemporary events. Once in the jail, one of the men suddenly drew two pistols and demanded the keys. At the same time two men posted outside the jail told their comrades to "Hurry up, boys, we are in danger." The sheriff was forced to release the prisoners. The men immediately armed themselves, then fled.

     Outside chaos reigned. Realizing what was happening, citizens scrambled to locate weapons. The jail breakers quickly mounted and fled Brownwood with an exchange of gunfire that resulted only in one horse being wounded in the neck. A posse abandoned pursuit when they discovered that the fugitives numbered fifteen or twenty men, all well armed. About an hour later a rainstorm obliterated the trail.

     The liberation of Redding and the others from the Brownwood jail created a sensation across Texas. From the beginning it appeared to indicate a link between the Hoo-Doo War and fighters from the Sutton-Taylor War in DeWitt County. (46)

               The following are the names of those who were identified as being
          with the crowd who released the prisoners: John Wesley Hardin, for
          whom there is $5000 [sic: $4000] reward; --- Olney, murderer of the
          deputy sheriff of Burnet county; ---- Caldwell, who had been acting the
          spy, and one of the Waldrop boys.
               There is a formidable party organized in Coleman county, who
          make their headquarters near the Santa Anna mountains, composed of the
          following parties: The Taylor and Hardin party of DeWitt county, and the
          desperadoes of Mason, Llano and Burnet counties, making in all about 100
          to 150 men strong." (47)

     Local citizens wasted no time requesting Governor R. B. Hubbard to offer a reward for the men. On May 15 T. R. Fleming wrote that twelve or fifteen men had ridden into Brownwood and liberated five prisoners. "The Sheriff of Coleman County had arrested four or five of the Redden [sic: Redding] gang and one of the Hardin or Clements gang . . . ." (48) Fleming added a postscript a noting that the "names of the parties breaking the Jail are unknown." In this he was incorrect, for several of the party were identified in the newspapers of the time, some doubtless erroneously. The Austin Daily Statesman reported that Bill Redding had led the party that freed the prisoners. (49) The Galveston Daily News also identified Bill Clements, alias Robertson, as one of the prisoners. (50) John Wesley Hardin certainly was not there, but there may have been a Hardin with the men that created the confusion. This is evidenced by a statement made on March 23, 1879, by outlaw Billy the Kid to Governor Lew Wallace that "A great many of what are known as the 'Gist Hardin' gang are there. Among them Joe Olney . . . ." (51)

     The final chapter of this episode was not written until the following year. In a letter to June Peak, commander of Company B, then stationed in Coleman County, John B. Jones stated:

               "If the Reddings are on the Pecos one hundred miles above Seven
          Rivers, they are in New Mexico and as we have no right to go beyond the
          limits of our state with an armed force, they are beyond our reach." (52)

     Others were not beyond the Rangers' reach. Even as the feudists continued west a number of men were arrested in June of 1877. Champ Farris, Bud Farris, Jim Mason, Andrew Murchison, Ed. Brown, Bill Cavin and John Carson were arrested by Sheriff J. J. Strickland charged as being "several of the crowd who broke open the Lampasas jail in May, 1876, and released Scott Cooley and John Ringo." (53) John B. Jones ordered them sent to Austin for safe keeping, a move that prompted quick action against him. (54) On July 11 Judge W. A. Blackburn issued a writ of habeas corpus to Jones commanding him to produce the prisoners at Lampasas on July 16. (55) Jones responded to Blackburn immediately after receiving the writ on July 12. Jones wrote later to Adjutant General Steele:

               "My opinion is that the object of the parties applying for the writ is
          to give the friends of prisoners an opportunity to rescue them, en route, or
          have them committed to the jail of this county so that they can take them
          out as they did Cooley and Ringo last year.
               The Reddings, Olneys and Farrises who are implicated in this affair
          and were in fact the leaders in the jail delivery, both here and at
          Brownwood recently, are the most desperate characters in the state and
          have a large family connection in this, Burnet, Llano and Mason Counties
          and will resort to any and all means possible for the release of these
          prisoners. I have hope that we will catch another of the Farrises and one
          of the Olneys in a few days as from information which I have just received
          I think they are still in the country." (56)

     The Redding brothers settled in Grant County, New Mexico. Here Bill Redding's third child, Willetta, was born in April 1879. The following year the family was enumerated in the Georgetown Precinct on June 10. Redding listed himself as Zach Redding, a thirty year old stock raiser. Tom Redding was living with the couple and gave his occupation as shingle cutter. (57) The following year a daughter named Bertha was born to the couple on March 15. (58) Sometime after this they moved to Arizona settling near Clifton. The brothers began working as freighters hauling ore to Lordsburg. The venture lasted less than a year. In early 1882 Tom Redding and four other teamsters were ambushed and killed by the Apaches. (59) Bill Redding returned to Grant County and continued ranching.

     Life settled into a routine for the Reddings. In 1900 he again made news when Deputy Sheriff W. D. "Keechi" Johnson was killed in Grant County. Bill Redding brought news of the murder to the local authorities. (60)

     Redding remained tough and resilient throughout his life. On February 4 the census taker noted William Z. Reading, now retired from ranching at age 70, working as a deputy. Redding gave his place of employment as "county." (61) Eventually, however, age caught up with him. Having lived most of his life outdoors, Redding was afflicted with skin cancer. By 1923 he had gone to California seeking relief. He died there on September 27, 1923. A local newspaper reported:

               WILLIAM Z. REDDING

               William Z. Redding died Thursday, September 27, 1923, at a local
          hospital at the age of 73 years. He was a retired stockman, a native of
          Lincoln, Ga.
               Surviving him are his wife and a daughter, Mrs. Bertha Moore of
          New Mexico.

               Funeral services will be held at 10 o'clock Saturday morning at the
          L. G. Scovern chapel on South Brand boulevard and burial will take place
          in Grand View Memorial park. (62)

     Like so many of those involved in the Hoo-Doo War, Bill Redding had lived down his past. Today he is nearly forgotten in feud history.

     Endnotes:

     1. Others had written on the feud prior to Dr. Sonnichsen. Tom Gamel narrated his recollections to Glenn Capps, and Miles Barler serialized his in a Llano newspaper before publishing it at the turn of the century. Others published interviews, factual and otherwise, in various newspapers. C. L. Douglas' Famous Texas Feuds followed in 1936 but, while well written, is not on Sonnichsen's scale as a history.

     2. Luke 8: 30. "Jesus then asked him, "What is your name?" And he said, "Legion"; for many demons had entered him."

     3. The Reddings were not the only men sporting identical names with others in the area. There were two James Polk Masons, both of whom may have supported Scott Cooley, and Sheriff John Clark lived surrounded by an additional eighteen John Clarks.

     4. 1850 Monroe County, Georgia, Census; Michael Redding to the author September 5, 2003; Ruth Reddick to Michael Redding, October 29, 2003. Courtesy Michael Redding. The census was enumerated by John A. Alexander on October 31. There is some confusion among the family researchers regarding James M. Redding's parents. At least one has stated that he was the son of Anderson Redding and Delilah Parham. Anderson Redding was born in 1764 and Delilah in 1773. Their youngest children appear to have been Mary (Polly) Redding born around 1800 in Monroe County. Delilah would have been fifty-two years old at the time of James birth in 1825, a highly unlikely scenario.

     5. Ruth Reddick to the author, October 29, 2003.

     6. 1860 Monroe County, Georgia, Census. The census was enumerated by Cary A. King on July 13, 1860.

     7. Ruth Reddick to the author, October 29, 2003.

     8. Michael Redding to the author September 5, 2003. The Civil War was extremely cruel to the Redding family. Thomas and Maria Searcy Redding had eight children. During the war five of his sons and both of his sons-in-law were killed in the fighting as well as a grandson, and a number of nephews and cousins. James M. Redding was killed at Griswoldsville. His brother William, wounded during the same battle, died of his wounds on June 6, 1865.

     9. Correspondence from Melissa to the author, December 1, 2001; Ruth Reddick to the author, October 29, 2003.

     10. 1870 Macon County, Alabama, Census. It is possible that the Chambliss family had moved out of the state by the time that the census was taken.

     11. Elizabeth Wynona Redding remained in Alabama when the Redding brothers left for Texas.

     12. Loveda (Loveday) Ann Lacy was born on March 16, 1858, in St. Clair County, Missouri.

     13. A. G. Roberts, whose given name is variously given as both Allen and Albert, was born in Illinois around 1843. Roberts had arrived in Texas by the early 1860's. On July 2, 1863, he enlisted for three years or until the end of the war under Captain William G. O'Brien in Company K, Mounted Volunteers, of the Frontier Regiment. The 1870 census shows his occupation was "driving stock" and living in Burnet County with wife Louisa and two children, William and Kate. Roberts' personal property was valued at $1,000. He also served briefly as a State Policeman from September 8 to October 31, 1871. Contemporary cattle records confirm that Roberts owned stock in both Llano and Mason Counties among others. Roberts was partners not only with W. Z. Redding but the Cavins and Bairds as well. Reddings exact connection with Roberts appears at times to be as an employee. However, contemporary records indicate that Bill Redding also had cattle of his own. 1870 Burnet County, Texas, Census; State Police Muster Rolls, Texas State Archives; Trail log of M. L. Hayes, ca. 1873 - 1875. Courtesy Mason County Historical Commission, copy in author's files; Burnet Bulletin, March 7 and May 23, 1874; February 20, 1875.

     14. Barler was the son of John and Catherine Lee Barler born January 29, 1833, in Johnstown, Ohio. His mother died on October 9, 1842 and his father on April 29, 1846. In 1849 Barler came to Texas where he later married Jane Buttery on February 25, 1858. Barler's memoirs (reference note 15) are valuable in providing some early history of the region, but they must be used with caution. Barler had a natural bias against his opponents during the Hoo-Doo War, but in other non-related events he embellished his role. Some events he created out of whole cloth. See notes 30 and 41 below.

     15. Miles Barler, Early Days In Llano, (No place: Privately published, no date), 31. The articles were first serialized in the Llano Times during 1898.

     16. Llano County District Court Records, Cause 329.

     17. John C. Oatman was a member of a well known and respected Llano County family. Born in 1815, Oatman was the first merchant in Llano and served as the town's first postmaster. He died in 1897. The family continues to be prominent in the county to this day.

     18. Wilson Hey to Governor Richard Coke, June 25, 1874. Adjutant General Reports. Courtesy Texas State Archives; Michael Redding to the author, September 5, 2003.

     19. Hey was the son of James and Catherine Ryan Hey born August 24, 1836, near Leighley, West Yorkshire, England. Hey ran away from home and arrived in America in 1854. He worked at various jobs, primarily as a tailor, throughout the country until 1861 when he was drafted into the Confederate Army, serving in the Ninth Mississippi Infantry. He reached Mason in the latter half of 1869. In 1871 he was elected registrar and Married Hannah Korn on December 3. He died in Mason on November 3, 1906. Pete Rose and Elizabeth E. Sherry ed., The Hoo Doo War: Portraits of a Lawless Time, Mason, Texas: Mason County Historical Commission, 2003, 37 - 44.

     20. John Clark has proven one of the most elusive and controversial figures involved in the Hoo-Doo War. Part of this is due to the presence of at least thirteen other John Clarks living in the area during this time. Until 2003, based largely upon the belief of family members, John Rufus Clark, born to Isaiah Clark and Sarah Elizabeth Low in Missouri on May 24, 1849 appeared to be the most likely candidate. Historian Jerry Ponder proved this identification erroneous when he discovered Sheriff Clark's age in 1875 was 41 based upon the local Masonic Lodge minutes. The real sheriff was John E. Clark, a former Confederate officer and son of William and Mary Elizabeth Worley Clark, born around 1834 in Callaway County, Kentucky. Rose and Sherry, ed., The Hoo Doo War: Portraits of a Lawless Time, 107 - 119.

     21. San Antonio Daily Express, August 29, 1874; Burnet Bulletin, September 5, 1874.      22. Record of Criminals by Co[unty], crime, description, Mason County, 58 - 59, Adjutant General Reports, Texas State Archives. Information concerning most of these men is lacking. George Cullen Arnett was the son of Cullen Curlee Arnett and Elizabeth Warren Norred born September 21, 1844 in Texas. By 1860 the family had moved to Burnet where, on April 5, 1862, he and his father were mustered into the 17th Texas Infantry, Company G, of Allen's regiment. Following the war Arnett married Frances Ann Coon on June 11, 1866. The 1870 census lists him as a stock raiser, along with his wife Fannie, aged twenty-five, and two sons, Richard J., age three, and John, age one. Two of his brothers, Alonzo Marcus and Albert Henry Arnett, served in the Texas Rangers. He died in Colorado City, Texas, on July 5, 1900. He remained a cattleman his entire life. 1850 Milam County, Texas, Census; 1860 and 1870 Burnet County, Texas, Census; Civil War Muster Rolls; Jerry Watkins to the author May 29, 2000; Texas Ranger Muster Rolls.

     23. State Docket, District Court, Book, Mason County, Causes 1, 2 and 3; John B. Jones to William Steele, October 28, 1875, AGR.; Llano County District Court Records, Cause 395. In 1877 the appeal was called to trial in Mason County. Roberts and Thomas were charged in three separate counts, two for theft of a cow, one for theft of a steer. Thomas was tried on November 14, 1877 for theft of a steer and found not guilty. The remaining charges were dismissed the same day.

     24. Llano County District Court Records, Causes 358, 359, 361 and 362.

     25. Ibid., Cause 393. Tom was indicted as T. S. Redding. From later entries in the case it appears that he was indicted for theft of cattle. His bondsmen were Jacob M. Lacy and J. M. "Mart" Lacy Jr.

     26. Ibid., Cause 389.

     27. LaGrange Fayette County New Era, May 12, 1876.

     28. San Antonio Daily Express, May 19, 1876.

     29. Lampasas District Court Records, loose papers. Testimony of J. T. Walker. The actual cause that Walker was testifying in was against John Carson, the husband of John Baird's oldest sister Mary.

     30. Barler, 32-33. Despite his assertion that he was one of the mob's leaders, it appears highly unlikely. Barler's memoirs, accurate in general detail, are at odds with contemporary records. He appears to have inserted himself in actions, always in a heroic mold, and embellished his exploits.

     31. Llano County District Court Records, Cause 403; Burnet County Marriage Records, Books A and C; 1870 Burnet County, Texas, Census; Burnet Bulletin, July 28, 1876. James M. Williams was born around 1852. The census for 1870 notes him as a stock raiser living near the Cavin family. Williams married Arabelle Lacy in Burnet on December 7, 1873. On December 24, 1874, Williams and one Peter Wagner were indicted for theft of a bull in Llano County. He may have been the man who accompanied John Ringo when Jim Cheyney was killed in September of 1875, but this has not been confirmed by any contemporary source. In 1876 he was charged with assault and attempt to murder in Burnet County. Williams was released on bail from the Burnet jail on July 26.

     32. Burnet Bulletin, September 15, 1876.

     33. Ibid.

     34. West Texas Free Press, September 16, 1876.

     35. Barler, 33.

     36. San Marcos West Texas Free Press, September 30, 1876.

     37. James B. Gillett, Six Years With The Texas Rangers, Lincoln, Nebraska: University of Nebraska Press, 1976, 88.

     38. Barler, 34.

     39. Ibid., 35 - 36.

     40. Ibid., 39.

     41. Joe Olney was confronted by Samuel Martin and Wilson Rountree on September 7. While the incident remains controversial, the end result was that both Martin and Rountree were shot while Olney escaped unharmed. Martin died on September 11. At the time Barler describes, he was on the run charged with murder. The entire episode as recounted by Barler is simply a bit of creative fiction.

     42. Lacy, John Hancock narrator, "Life of John Hancock Lacy," unpublished manuscript courtesy Helen C. Marschall. The Lacy family were old pioneers of Burnet County. Jacob Melbourne Lacy was born in Christian County, Kentucky, on February 1, 1825. Lacy first married Elizabeth Ann Armstrong, and by 1850 they were living in Upshur County, Texas. The family moved to Burnet County where Jacob worked as a blacksmith. Elizabeth had died by 1864. On October 6, 1864, he was married again to Mary Corder. Hereafter cited as Lacy manuscript.

     43. Ibid.

     44. Galveston Daily News, May 19, 1877.

     45. Lacy manuscript.

     46. The Sutton-Taylor War began during Reconstruction. Probably the best known fighter in the feud was John Wesley Hardin. The feud pitted the forces of the Taylor family, mainly descendants of Josiah Taylor, an early settler of DeWitt County, and the forces of Reconstruction government as represented by the Texas State Police supported by William E. Sutton. It was the most violent feud in Texas history, lasting well into the 1870's and claiming numerous lives. Sonnichsen's account of the feud in I'll Die Before I'll Run provides one of the best general accounts of the trouble. There are a number of books that touch on the feud and various men involved in it including the works of Chuck Parsons, Leon Metz, and Richard Marohn. Noted historian Chuck Parsons is currently working on a book length manuscript of the feud.

     47. Galveston Daily News, May 19, 1877.

     48. T. R. Fleming to Governor R. B. Hubbard, May 15, 1877, AGR.

     49. Austin Daily Statesman, May 19, 1877.

     50. Galveston Daily News, May 22, 1877.

     51. "Statements made by the Kid," March 23, 1879, Wallace Collection, courtesy Indiana State Library, Indianapolis, Indiana.

     52. Jones to Peak, October 7, 1878, AGR.

     53. Austin Daily Statesman, July 15, 1877.

     54. Galveston Daily News, August 1, 1877.

     55. Writ of Habeas Corpus, Blackburn to Jones, July 11, 1877, AGR.

     56. Jones to Steele, July 12, 1877, AGR.

     57. 1880 Grant County, New Mexico, Census.

     58. The Reddings had five more children between 1884 and 1891. These were Jessie, born July 4, 1884, Edward, born August 14, 1886, Vivian born December 21, 1887, Ruby born November 1891 and Gladys on November 21, 1894.

     59. Untitled manuscript concerning William Zachariah Redding, courtesy Helen C. Marschall.

     60. Silver City Enterprise, August 31, 1900; Silver City Independent, September 4, 1900; Silver City Enterprise, September 7, 1900. Copies courtesy historian Bob Alexander.

     61. 1920 Grant County, New Mexico, Census.

     62. Glendale News-Press, September 28, 1923.